Instrument under seal
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Any written document that is validated by the seal of its author (see: Seal). Until recently many documents that created strong legal obligations had to be of this form, e.g., deeds (see: Deed). Recently the use of seals has been diminishing, and in most cases the same effect is achieved by wording the document to indicate that it is intended to be a deed. This is expressly allowed for by the LawOfPropertyMiscellaneousProvisionsAct1989, which repeals all statutory provisions requiring a document to be sealed.