Parties to crime

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There are various ways in which persons can be jointly liable for, or in respect of, committing a criminal offense. More than one method of collaboration can apply in the same offence.

  • A person may be an Accomplice to a principal offender; that is, he may 'aid, abet, counsel, or procure' the offence, while not being the direct cause of the Actus Reus.
  • Parties can enter into Conspiracy to commit an offence.
  • Parties can enter into a Joint enterprise to commit an offence, although it is not clear whether this is distinct from the parties' being accomplices to each other.